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Evolution is a change in the gene pool of a population over time.
A gene is a hereditary unit that can be passed on unaltered for many generations.
It unites all the fields of biology under one theoretical umbrella.
It is not a difficult concept, but very few people -- the majority of biologists included -- have a satisfactory grasp of it.
The process of evolution can be summarized in three sentences: Genes mutate.As a result, more dark moths survived until reproductive age and left offspring. [evolution: a change in the gene pool] In order to understand evolution, it is necessary to view populations as a collection of individuals, each harboring a different set of traits.The greater number of offspring left by dark moths is what caused their increase in frequency. A single organism is never typical of an entire population unless there is no variation within that population.Phenotypic changes, like this, induced solely by changes in environment do not count as evolution because they are not heritable; in other words the change is not passed on to the organism's offspring.
Phenotype is the morphological, physiological, biochemical, behavioral and other properties exhibited by a living organism.
Evolution can occur without morphological change; and morphological change can occur without evolution.