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The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the Miami-Illinois word Shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum.

The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de La Salle around 1679 in a memoir.

On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.

Chicago's first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal opened in 1848.

Concern for social problems among Chicago's immigrant poor led Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to found Hull House in 1889.

During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago attained national stature as the leader in the movement to improve public health.

O'Hare International Airport is the second-busiest airport in the world when measured by aircraft traffic; the region also has the largest number of U. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, novels, film, theater (especially improvisational comedy), food, and music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, hip-hop, gospel, and house music.

There are many colleges and universities in the Chicago area, of which Northwestern University, the University of Chicago, and the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities.

To accommodate rapid population growth and demand for better sanitation, the city improved its infrastructure.

Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues.

The city has many nicknames, the best known being the Windy City and Chi-Town.

This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois River, which flows into the Mississippi River.

The city grew significantly in size and population by incorporating many neighboring townships between 18, with the largest annexation happening in 1889, with five townships joining the city, including the Hyde Park Township, which now comprises most of the South Side of Chicago and the far southeast of Chicago, and the Jefferson Township, which now makes up most of Chicago's Northwest Side.Chicago's flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Europe and migrants from the Eastern United States.